Originally named Takola (Thai:ตะโกลา), the town was one of the historic city states (mueang) dating back to Srivijaya times in the 13th century. It was also known as Takkolam (Tamil: தக்கொலம்) which is the Tamil word for “piper cuveba’ and “calyptranthes jambalana. There is also a place in the Tamil country which up to now carries the same name Takkolam. Takuapa could have been either abounded by the spices “calyptranthese jambalana” and “piper cubeba” or it could have been occupied by settlers from the Takkolam of the Tamil country, or both. Takuapa is said to have been the finest harbor on the west coast of the peninsula for trade between the Malay kingdom of Sri Vijaya and the early South Indian Tamil kingdoms of the Cholas and Pallavas during different times in history. It was later renamed to Takua Pa due to the rich ores near the town - Takua is the Thai word for lead, even though tin was the most important ore found there.
There was a Hindu/Vishnu temple in the 8th century AD. An important Merchantile organisation called 'Kodumbalur Manigramam', built a water tank for this temple. They have left an inscription in Tamil. The tank was called 'Avani Naaranam' - 'Avani Naaranan' was the name of one of the Pallava Emperors of Tamil Nadu.
The town was long administrated by Nakhon Si Thammarat. In 1892 it was converted to a province, administered within the Monthon Phuket. This province was merged into Phang Nga province on April 1 1932. The district Talad Yai (big market, ตลาดใหญ่) was then renamed to Takua Pa.
The district was an important tin-dredging area in the first half of the twentieth century, with the English company Siamese Tin Syndicate Ltd., and the Australian company Satupulo No Liability Co. both operating dredges in the rivers, with narrow-gauge tramways following them upstream. The Asiatic Company also had a dredge and tramway further inland at Amphoe Kapong. Siamese Tin was operating here at least as late as 1967, but Thai magnates, such as the late Chuti Bunsung, took over operations by the early 1980s. By 2008 there was no sign left of the mining, as plantations, particularly rubber, have covered the former dredged areas. The public library at Takua Pa town has photographs on display of the dredging and sluicing operations in their heyday in the 1920s and 1930s. The former Asiatic Company workshops can also still be seen in Amphoe Kapong town.
The Settlement of Human in the South
For understanding the story of the prehistoric man in the small area of the Peninsula Malaysia, you have to be aware of the human development, before the story of Takuapa town. Archaeological evidence was been found on a broad area in the Peninsula Malaysia.
Tribe life is already at least 5.000 years old, these people lived in caves, and cliff sheds. Evidence from the Stone Age about the cave dweller was discovered by finding tomahawks and by cave paintings.
From the Bronze Age until the early period of modern history People begin to settle down permanently in a community.
In this case, natural and geographical environment characteristics, such as space is abundance.
The weather has been of great influence of the human settlement. Also food production is a big factor.
The south was divided into 2 parts, the west coast and the east coast.
The east coast is mostly flat ,the soil is fertile ,the waves are less and is suitable for cultivation.
This factor is significant for people to move out from different directions towards a permanent settlement and develop a community The west coast is rough. The coastline is indented by previous collapse of the earth crust and there are violent waves. The area is not fertile and not suitable for cultivation, so the west coast is not favorable for permanent residence. Humans begin the settle here later on in the modern history.
The abundance of natural resources such as forests, minerals, especially tin and the wind direction which enables human to get in contact with the blessed land of the west as Sri Lanka, India, Arab, etc... Makes that adventurers and merchants seek asylum over here. They settle down at a central point
by the sea where they can ship and store their products. Also they developed a route towards the east coast.
Around 2000 years ago the first trading stations were build in Khuan Lukpat (Krabi province ) and Phu Khao Thong (Ranong). They grew into port cities and begin to exchange local and foreign goods as well culture from China, India, the Middle East, and the Roman Empire. From the shore of the Andaman coast, they made a route towards Surat Thani. This was part of the southern silk route, which connected the west with china and avoided the street of Mallaka, which suffered from piracy. Both cities made beads and many of them are still found nowadays together with ancient foreign artifacts, glassware, coins, and stone inscriptions from India. Somewhere 1300 years ago the people discover how to sail, a new port emerges at Thung Tuk, and the two other ports became less significant.
Thung Tuk is located near Takua Pa In the Phang-Nga Province In the Chola Dynasty, the Tamil Influence became important.
The king Ashoka send monks to spread Buddhism, Evidence from this was be Found by the discovery of Singha’s (lion artifact) Elephant statues (Pra Bhikhanedra) and other symbols of Buddhism. Further, on they also start to trade Their products in the Malay Peninsula The main port they used the named Takola and assumed is that it Is the same as the port Thung Tuk.
The name takola comes from the Tamil word takkolam, which is the name of an aromatic fruit The Chola dynasty left a lasting legacy in literature and architecture. They established the first form of government and bureaucracy.